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Know About Your Injury

Click on the part where you have pain and know the cause and recommended treatment for it.

SHOULDER
know your injury
Impingement Syndrome/Bursitis/Tendinitis

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Swelling around shoulder
  • Pain with activity especially lifting and rotating movements
  • Unable to lift arm and reach back especially while dressing, combing or bathing

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Usually rest, medicines and physiotherapy will cure it. Sometimes an injection or keyhole surgery is needed.
Frozen Shoulder/Adhesive Capsulitis/Periarthritis

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Recent aggravation of long term shoulder pain
  • Slow onset of severe stiffness & restriction of arm
  • Sometimes weakness due to complications like cuff tears

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Initially physical therapy and exercises, sometimes shoulder injections are needed. Later the treatment of choice is keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Capsular Release & Acromioplasty) followed by rehab exercises
SHOULDER INSTABILITY/’looseness’

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Repeated shoulder dislocations
  • Multiple instances of shoulder giving out or slipping out or looseness of joint
  • Shoulder pain sometimes

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment of choice is keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Labral Repair) followed by Rehab exercises
ROTATOR CUFF TEAR

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain at rest and with activity
  • Pain at night, particularly if lying on side
  • Weakness and inability to lift arm

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment of choice is keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair) followed by Rehab exercises
ARTHRITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Gradually increasing pain that is aggravated by activity
  • Restricted activities
  • Difficulty lifting arm
  • Pain at night especially at night during sleeping

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Initial treatment is medicines, physical therapy but final treatment of choice is Total / Reverse Shoulder Replacement
know your sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • CRICKET: Impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tears, instability, biceps tendonitis, AC joint strains
  • TENNIS: cuff tendonitis, impingement syndrome, biceps tendonitis, dislocations
  • FOOTBALL:Dislocation and labral tears, AC joint sprains
  • GOLF: Rotator cuff tendinitis, Frozen shoulder, Bursitis, Shoulder instability
  • BADMINTON:Cuff tendonitis, impingement syndrome, biceps tendonitis, dislocations
  • SWIMMING: Impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tears, instability, biceps tendonitis
  • RUNNING: Tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, dislocations
ELBOW
know your injury
tennis elbow/lateral epicondylitis

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain begins as mild and slowly worsens over weeks and months
  • Pain or burning on outer part of elbow
  • Weak grip strength
  • Symptoms may worsen with forearm activity

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Medicines, physical therapy, activity modifications will usually be sufficient but sometimes injections or keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Release & debridement) followed by rehab exercises
ELBOW BURSITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Elbow pain that gradually increases
  • Weakness of grip with pain
  • Sometimes pain radiates to shoulder and hand

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, exercises and injections is sufficient
GOLFER’S ELBOW/MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain begins as mild and slowly worsens over weeks and months
  • Pain or burning on inner part of elbow
  • Weak grip strength
  • Symptoms may worsen with forearm activity

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Medicines, physical therapy, activity modifications will usually be sufficient but sometimes injections or keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Release & debridement) followed by rehab exercises
ELBOW DISLOCATION

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Deformity of elbow with swelling and bruising
  • Intense pain
  • Limited movement

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment of choice is Closed Reduction followed by rehab exercises. Sometimes surgery is needed
ELBOW ARTHRITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain in elbow associated with swelling
  • Loss of range of motion
  • A clicking or grating sensation in elbow
  • Elbow may stiffen into a position where it becomes bent

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Initially medicines, physical therapy or injections are needed. Later joint replacement surgery is beneficial
TENNIS ELBOW/LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain begins as mild and slowly worsens over weeks and months
  • Pain or burning on outer part of elbow
  • Weak grip strength
  • Symptoms may worsen with forearm activity

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Medicines, physical therapy, activity modifications will usually be sufficient but sometimes injections or keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Release & debridement) followed by rehab exercises
ELBOW BURSITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Elbow pain that gradually increases
  • Weakness of grip with pain
  • Sometimes pain radiates to shoulder and hand

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, exercises and injections is sufficient
GOLFER’S ELBOW/MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain begins as mild and slowly worsens over weeks and months
  • Pain or burning on inner part of elbow
  • Weak grip strength
  • Symptoms may worsen with forearm activity

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Medicines, physical therapy, activity modifications will usually be sufficient but sometimes injections or keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic Release & debridement) followed by rehab exercises
ELBOW LIGAMENT SPRAINS/UCL/RCL SPRAINS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Slowly increasing pain with specific activity
  • Loss of movements

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, ice, medicines and Physical therapy is sufficient
know your Sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • CRICKET: tennis elbow, medial tendinitis
  • TENNIS: tendinitis, cartilage injuries, dislocations, tendon tears
  • FOOTBALL: dislocations and fractures
  • GOLF: golfers elbow, lateral epicondylitis, Medial collateral ligament sprains
  • BADMINTON: bursitis, tendonitis, epicondylitis, medial collateral ligament sprains
  • SWIMMING: epicondylitis, triceps tendonitis, bursitis
  • RUNNING: lateral epicondylitis
WRIST
know your injury
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

Q.What happens in this ?

  • An electric current-like feeling mostly in thumb, index, and long fingers
  • Symptoms usually begin gradually and may become increasingly more
  • Symptoms at night are common, may disrupt sleep
  • Feeling of discomfort or weakness
  • In severe cases hand muscles at base of thumb may become visibly thinned out and wasted

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Physical therapy, splinting, medicines are needed. But the treatment of choice is surgery (Carpal Tunnel Release)
DEQUERVAIN’S TENOSYNOVITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Painful and disabling condition.
  • Simple pinching and twisting activities and slightest motion of the wrist can cause pain

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, medication and injections are sufficient. Sometimes surgical release is needed
DEQUERVAIN’S TENOSYNOVITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Painful and disabling condition.
  • Simple pinching and twisting activities and slightest motion of the wrist can cause pain

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, medication and injections are sufficient. Sometimes surgical release is needed
ARTHRITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Joint pain associated with morning stiffness
  • Pain is aggravated by activity or increased joint use, relieved by rest
  • Joint pain increases over time
  • Swelling of the affected joint
  • Joint may feel warm

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Initially medicines, physical therapy or injections are needed. Later joint surgery is beneficial
SCAPHOID BONE FRACTURE

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Severe pain and swelling after injury
  • Loss of movements
  • Bruising

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Healing is usually difficult therefore surgery (Screw fixation) is treatment of choice for displaced fractures
HAND FRACTURES

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Swelling at fracture site
  • Tenderness and bruising at fracture site
  • Inability to move injured finger in completely
  • Deformity of injured finger
  • Finger may be stiff and painful

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Splinting and rest is usually needed. Sometimes surgery (K-wire/screw fixation) is required
TFCC (TRIANGULAR FIBRO CARTILAGE COMPLEX) INJURY

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Wrist pain on inner side of wrist
  • Swelling and clicking sensation
  • Pain gets aggravated by activity
  • Sometimes feeling of instability

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, splinting and medicines are needed for simple injuries. Instability cases need keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic TFCC repair)
know your sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • CRICKET: hand fractures, thumb sprains and dislocations, tendon injuries, wrist sprains, DeQuervains disease
  • TENNIS: TFCC injury, carpal instability, ECU tendonitis and dislocations, DeQuervains disease
  • FOOTBALL: hand fractures and dislocations, muscle sprains, ligament tears
  • GOLF: Tendinitis, Fractures of the hamate bone, finger dislocations, Carpal tunnel syndrome, DeQuervain's disease
  • BADMINTON: repetitive strains injury, TFCC injury, carpal instability
  • SWIMMING: tendonitis, ligament sprains
  • RUNNING: tendon injuries, TFCC injury, game keepers thumb
SPINE
know your injury
CERVICAL/LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Neck pain and stiffness, which may worsen with activity
  • Numbness and weakness in arms, hands and fingers
  • Trouble walking, loss of balance or weakness in hands or legs
  • Muscle spasms in neck and shoulders
  • Headaches
  • Grinding and popping sound/feeling in neck with movement
  • Pain may worsen when looking up or down for a long time, or with certain activities
  • Pain may improve with rest or lying down

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, bracing and physical therapy is needed. Sometimes Surgery (Decompression & Stabilization) is a needed especially when instability or neurological deficit is noted
HERNIATED LUMBAR/CERVICAL DISK

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Low back pain or neck pain resulting from a fall or a blow to the back
  • A sharp, often shooting pain that extends from buttocks down back of one leg
  • Weakness in one leg or one arm in severe cases
  • Tingling, "pins-and-needles" sensation, or numbness in one leg or buttock or in one arm
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, bracing and physical therapy is needed. When weakness or bladder involvement is present, urgent Surgery (Discectomy & Decompression) is a must
NECK/LOW BACK SPRAIN

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain in back of neck or lower back that worsens with movement
  • Pain becomes more as day passes by
  • Headache in back of head
  • Stiffness or decreased range of motion (side to side, up and down, circular)
  • Tingling or weakness in arms and legs in severe cases
  • Sometimes numbness

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, heat, medicines and physical therapy and ergonomic care is sufficient
SCIATICA

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Some medical conditions that can cause sciatica include herniated discs, lumbar spinal stenosis, piriformis syndrome, spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease
  • Sharp, intense, shooting pain down the leg
  • Numbness, burning or tingling sensation in the leg or foot
  • Pain increases with coughing, sneezing or straining and with bending backward and with prolonged sitting or standing

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, bracing and physical therapy is needed. When weakness or bladder involvement is present, urgent Surgery (Discectomy & Decompression) is a must
know your sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • CRICKET: Muscle strains, disc disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, sciatica
  • TENNIS: Muscle strains, spondylolysis,
  • FOOTBALL: Spondylolysis, disc injuries, sprains and strains, fractures
  • GOLF: muscle strains, disc disease
  • BADMINTON: Sprains and strains, disc injuries
  • SWIMMING: Disc injuries, spondylolysis
  • RUNNING: Sprains, sciatica, spondylolisthesis, disc injuries
HIP
know your injury
HIP/TROCHANTRIC BURSITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Joint pain and tenderness related to activity
  • Stiffness and aching
  • Swelling, warmth or redness over the joint

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Physical therapy, rest, and sometimes injections are sufficient
FEMOROACETABULAR/HIP IMPINGEMENT

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain in the groin area or outside hip with running or certain activities
  • Sharp pain with turning, twisting and squatting
  • Sometimes crepitus or clicking on movements

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Medication and physical therapy but treatment of choice is keyhole surgery (Arthroscopic repair)
QUADRICEPS/HAMSTRING MUSCLE STRAINS AND TEARS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Common injury in running or jumping sports
  • Bruising and swelling in thigh
  • Pain and weakness

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, ice, physical therapy and rehab exercises are needed for minor injuries. Surgery is needed for complete tears of quadriceps tendon
SNAPPING HIP

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Snapping feeling around hip especially during activities like walking, getting up from a chair, or squatting
  • Snapping hip is usually painless
  • Sometimes limited movements

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Usually physical therapy and rehab exercises are sufficient. Sometimes in recurrent cases surgery (Arthroscopic release of tendon) is required
ISCHIOFEMORAL/HIP LABRAL TEAR

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Clicking, popping or catching sensation in the hip
  • Pain on twisting or pivoting movements

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Physical therapy and exercises to start with but surgery (Arthroscopic debridement and repair) is treatment of choice
know your Sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • Cricket: groin sprains, trochantric bursitis, osteitis pubis, hip labral tears, hamstring strains, Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), gluteal tendinopathy.
  • Tennis: hamstring strains, femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), Labral tears.
  • Football: hamstring strains, hip pointers, sports hip triad (labral tears, adductor strains and rectus strain), bursitis.
  • Golf: labral tears, muscle strains.
  • Badminton: muscle strains, labral tears, bursitis.
  • Swimming: tendonitis, bursitis, labral tears, FAI
  • Running: IT band syndrome, stress fractures, labral tears, pyriformis syndrome.
KNEE
know your injury
PREPATELLAR/KNEE BURSITIS/JUMPER’S KNEE

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain with activity under or around front of kneecap
  • Rapid swelling on front of kneecap
  • Tender and warm to the touch
  • Pain when walking up or down stairs, kneeling, squatting, and sitting with a bent knee for an extended time period

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, ice, and physical therapy are sufficient. Surgery (Arthroscopic Debridement) is required in difficult cases
MENISCAL TEAR /TORNED KNEE CARTILAGE

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain in the knee associated with clicking or crepitus
  • Swelling in knee
  • Catching or locking of knee
  • Pain on squatting

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Physical therapy and rest is needed in few cases. But the treatment of choice is Surgery (Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy/Meniscal repair) followed by rehab exercises
ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain with swelling within 24 hours
  • Instability and frequent giving way
  • Crepitus and occasional locking of knee
  • Loss of full range of motion and inability to run and use stairs
  • Discomfort while walking

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment of choice is Surgery (Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction) followed by rehab exercises
PATELLA/KNEECAP DISLOCATION/INSTAILITY

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Knee is bent and can’t straighten
  • Pain, deformity and Swelling
  • Recurrent instability or feeling of giving way and falls

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Initially, rest, ice and splinting will be sufficient. But the treatment of choice is Surgery (Arthroscopic MPFL Reconstruction) followed by rehab exercises
POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • May hear a "popping" noise and feel knee give out
  • Pain with swelling within 24 hours
  • Instability while walking

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment of choice is Surgery (Arthroscopic PCL Reconstruction) followed by rehab exercises
CARTILAGE INJURIES

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain on activity especially on certain activities
  • Recurrent locking of knee
  • Recurrent swelling

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest and bracing is needed but the treatment of choice is Surgery (Arthroscopic Microfracture/OATS/ACI) followed by rehab exercises
know your sport injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • Cricket: ACL tears, Meniscus tears, Patellar Tendinitis, Chondromalacia patellae, IT band Bursitis, plica syndrome.
  • Tennis: Jumpers knees, ACL tears, MCL tears, Meniscal and Cartilage injuries, fractures.
  • Football: ACL tears, PCL tears, Knee dislocations, Collateral ligament tears, muscle tears, Fractures, Tendinitis.
  • Golf: Chondromalacia patellae, Meniscal tears, tendinitis.
  • Badminton: Meniscus tears, patella tendinitis, ACL tears.
  • Swimming: Chondromalacia patellae, MCL sprains, Pes bursitis, Medial plica syndrome, patella tendinitis, medial meniscus tears.
  • Running: stress fractures, shin splints, patellar tendinitis, bursitis, anterior knee pain, Chondromalacia patellae.
ANKLE _ FOOT
know your injury
ANKLE SPRAIN

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Sudden onset of pain following a twisting injury to ankle
  • Swelling and bruising around ankle especially on the outer aspect
  • Loss of movements
  • Sometimes instability or looseness in recurrent cases

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Treatment will vary depending on the severity of injury. In most cases rest, bracing, crutches to avoid putting weight on the injury, and medicines are sufficient. In severe cases, Surgery (Arthroscopic Ligament BOSTRUM repair) may be needed to repair the ligaments
ACHILLES TENDINITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain on the back of heel that worsens with activity
  • Severe pain the day after exercising
  • Thickening and swelling of tendon
  • Bone spur at lower part of tendon at back of heel
  • Usually seen on both sides
  • Associated with medical complications like rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, etc

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Usually rest, physical therapy and exercises are sufficient, but sometimes injections or Surgery (Arthroscopic Debridement & Spur excision) is needed
PLANTAR FASCIITIS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Pain on walking difficult and usually worse in the morning, when you take your first steps, and after standing or sitting for a while
  • Sometimes, associated with other conditions like diabetes, flat foot, hypothyroidism etc

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Exercises and physical therapy is usually sufficient. In rare cases Surgery (Surgical release of fascia) is required
ANKLE IMPINGEMENT/ATHLETES ANKLE

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Ankle pain that continues long after an ankle sprain
  • Pain, swelling and tissue thickening are usually felt in front and slightly to the side of the ankle
  • Pain worsens as the foot is forced up or down and at times associated with clicking sensation

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, physical therapy, and bracing are necessary. Severe cases need Surgery (Arthroscopic Debridement) followed by rehab exercises
STRESS FRACTURES

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Intense pain which increases with activity
  • Chronic pain on physical exertion
  • Swelling, bruising
  • Limited mobility

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Rest, ice and bracing is sufficient usually, but very rarely Surgery (Fracture Fixation with screw or K-wire) is required
BUNIONS/HALLUX VALGUS

Q.What happens in this ?

  • Red, calloused skin on the inside of the big toe
  • A bony bump
  • Pain at the joint
  • Big toe turned toward other toes

Q.How is it treated ?

  • Footwear modification, exercises and physical therapy is needed. Surgery (Corrective Bone Surgery) is required for severe cases
Know Sports Injury

Most common sports specific injuries are listed below.

  • CRICKET: Ankle sprains, ankle impingement, fracture of toes, ankle cartilage injuries.
  • TENNIS: Ankle sprains, ankle fractures and dislocations.
  • FOOTBALL: Ankle sprains and cartilage injuries, ankle dislocations
  • GOLF: Hallus rigidus, hammer and claw toes, morton’s neuroma, and ankle sprains.
  • BADMINTON: Ankle sprains, achillis tendonitis and ruptures, ankle fractures.
  • SWIMMING: Achillis tendinitis, tarsal tunnel syndrome, cramps.
  • RUNNING: Achillis tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, anklesprains.

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Sports MedicineVideo Illustration

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